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Mongolia in Brief


Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags (provinces) that are further subdivided into 313 sums (counties). These divisions are used to govern the country and enforce laws passed by Ikh Hural, the Mongolian parliament. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia’s capital city, is located in the north central part of the country

The Mongolian Constitution, adopted in 1992, established an elected legislature and a directly elected President, with 2 large parties (MPRP and Democratic Party), a number of smaller parties, currently with 3rd coalition government in 4 years. The Prime Minister is nominated by and serves on behalf of the majority party in the parliament. The Constitution enshrines the concepts of democracy, freedom of speech and judicial independence. One or more political parties represented in the Parliament nominate presidential candidates. Election is by simple majority and once elected, the President serves a term of four years and may be re-elected only once. The Government is the highest executive body of the state. Their term is four years beginning with the appointment of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the leader of the government and is accountable to parliament for its implementation of legislation. The government is also responsible for directing the country’s economic, social and cultural development.

The Mongolian Constitution also establishes a judicial function vested solely in the courts. The judicial system consists of the Supreme Court as the highest court with a number of appellate and district courts. The Supreme Courts has a number of powers including the right to try certain criminal cases and legal disputes, and to examine the decisions of lower courts through the appeals process. The Supreme Court also examines cases of human rights transferred to it by the Constitutional Court and the Prosecutor-General and provides official interpretations of law, with the exception of the Constitution. The Constitution also allows for the formation of specialized courts such as criminal, civil and administrative courts that are not under the supervision of the Supreme Court. A general Council of Courts has also been established to ensure the independence of the judiciary. It has the exclusive power to select judges.